The history of our Center dates from 1956 when the Institute of Thoracic Surgery of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences was founded on the initiative of academician Aleksander N. Bakoulev on the basis of the department of surgery that he headed at the Second Moscow Medical Institute.

In 1956 the Institute of Thoracic Surgery was renamed as the Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. After A. N. Bakoulev’s death in 1967 the Institute got his name. In 1992, on the initiative of its director, academician of RAMS Vladimir I. Bourakovsky, the Institute was reorganized into the Center for Cardiovascular Surgery of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Following V. I. Bourakovsky’s death (1994) the Institute of Cardiac Surgery was named after him, while the Center was named after Bakoulev (1995). Over the past years the Center was headed by A. N. Bakoulev (1956-1957), A. A. Busalov (1957-1959), S. A. Kolesnikov (1959-1966) and V. I. Bourakovsky (1966-1994).

Aleksander N. Bakoulev
Aleksander N. Bakoulev (1890-1967) was an outstanding surgeon of the XX century, the author of fundamental works on general surgery and neurosurgery. He performed the first operations for congenital (1948) and acquired (1952) heart diseases in the USSR and was the first Russian scientist to be awarded Lenin Prize for great contribution to heart surgery. Aleksander N. Bakoulev was academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, hero of Socialist Labor, Honored Scientific Worker and the President of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. The Institute that he founded was the first institute of cardiovascular surgery in the world.

Aleksei A. Busalov
Aleksei A. Busalov (1903-1966) headed the Institute in 1958-1959. During that period the construction of a new building of the Institute on Leninsky Prospect was completed and a regular clinical and research activity was established in there (1959). A.A. Busalov made a great contribution to setting up the journal “Thoracic Surgery” (later renamed into the journal of “Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery”) and to «Textbook of Thoracic Operative Surgery».

Sergei A. Kolesnikov
Sergei A. Kolesnikov (1901-1985) was a director of the Institute from 1959 to 1966. That was the formation period for open-heart surgery and he contributed greatly to surgical treatment of acquired heart diseases, performed a series of operations, the first of this kind in the USSR, and promoted international contacts of the Institute with the leading hospitals abroad.

Vladimir I. Bourakovsky
Vladimir I. Bourakovsky (1922-1994), one of the most famous surgeons of our time, made a special contribution to the formation and development of Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. His special merit was setting up a team of specialists who now perform several thousands operations on heart and great vessels per year including pediatric surgery. He formed his scientific school; the direction of mathematical modeling, started target research programs and developed new operations. In his lifetime V.I. Bourakovsky was honored with Lenin and State prizes, the titles of Hero of Socialist Labor and Honored Scientific Worker. He was awarded posthumously in 1997 Bakoulev prize for his remarkable contribution to the development of cardiovascular surgery.

Aleksander N. Bakoulev’s first deputy for research work was Evgeniy N. Meshalkin who became afterwards the founder and permanent director of Novosibirsk Scientific and Research Institute for Circulation Pathology, academician of RAMS, Hero of Socialists Labour, outstanding cardiac surgeon and scientists. The first research worker at the Center (the Institute of Thoracic Surgery) was Vyacheslav I. Frantsev who subsequently became a prominent pediatric cardiac surgeon, head of a cardiovascular surgery department of Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute (MONIKI), professor, USSR State Prize winner. The first physician appointed to this position was Alla I. Lagutina, who later became an outstanding anaesthesiologist. She is still working at the Center.

The first leaders of scientific units at the Institute made a great contribution to the formation and development of the Center. They were Maria Ivanitskaya, Gdal Gelstein, Elena Stepanyan, Yuri Petrosyan and Grigory Tsukerman. A special role was played by V. A. Bukharin who worked at the Center since its foundation and finished his scientific and practical career in the rank of a director of the Institute of Coronary and vascular Surgery of Bakoulev Center, academician of RAMS, Lenin and State Prize winner, Honored Scientific Worker of the Russian Federation.

Research workers and the whole team of the Center more than once received the highest degrees of awards such as two Stars of the Hero of Socialist Labor, two Lenin Prizes, six USSR State Prizes, two Prizes of the USSR Council of Ministers, two Prizes of Lenin Komsomol and other awards.

V. A. Bukharin Evgeniy N. Meshalkin М. А. Ivanitskaya Elena Stepanyan
V. A. Bukharin E. N. Meshalkin М. А. Ivanitskaya E. P. Stepanyan

L. L. Rapoport Y. S. Petrosyan G. G. Gelstein G. I. Tsukerman
L. L. Rapoport Y. S. Petrosyan G. G. Gelstein G. I. Tsukerman

In March 2000, in the nomination «Science and Technology» the Center won the highest award – «Russian National Olympus» – the All-Russia public premium instituted by social development foundation «Third Millennium», the Russian Union of Industrialists and Businessmen, «Stars of Fatherland» foundation for promotion and support of culture, arts, science and sports.

The most distinguished scientists of the Center who made a considerable contribution to its development received special awards – Bakoulev and Bourakovsky prizes. They are academicians of RAMS V. A. Bukharin, V. P. Podzolkov, RAMS corresponding members E. Z. Golukhova, A. V. Ivanitsky, A. I. Malashenkov, A. Sh. Revishvili, B. G. Alekyan, Y. I. Buziashvili, professors N. B. Dobrova, V. S. Rabotnikov, A. A. Spiridonov, I. I. Skopin, G. I. Tsukerman, K. V. Shatalov, G. V. Lobachova (doctor of medical sciences), S. A. Shanoyan (candidate of medical sciences), and T. I. Yuskevich (Ph.D.).