Tricuspid atresia. The principle of Fontan operation
In the normally developed heart tricuspid valve connects the right atrium with the right ventricle. This valve has not developed with atresia and there is a dense membrane in its place through which the blood flow cannot pass.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
The word "anomalous" means "wrong". Pulmonary veins (and there are four of them) should flow into the left atrium, and in this defect they do not inflow, i.e. do not connect with it.
BWGS – Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery
In BWGS heart defect which we are considering now, one of the coronary arteries origins not from the aorta, but from the adjacent pulmonary artery, which contains not arterial but venous blood.
This defect is always "critical". The children with this defect require resuscitation immediately after birth. Especially in case of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.
Hypoplastic left-heart syndrome (HLHS)
Until quite recently, this defect was absolutely fatal in all cases. The child died within the first week of life, and the surgical help was impossible.
With this defect both normally developed atriums are available in the heart but they open into a single ventricular chamber.
Congenital aortic stenosis
The essence of the disturbances in this rather frequent defect is the following. Aortic valve regulates the blood flow from the left ventricle to its ascending area and consists of three thin semilunar cusps which squeeze up against the aortic wall and thus give the access to the free blood flow, and in each relaxation they close and block this way.
ASD - Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect is one of the most common congenital heart defects in children over 3 years. This defect is associated with a large hole in the septum separating the right and left atria.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Perhaps there is no other congenital heart disease, which in children over 3 years could attract acute attention. This age is the most common for cyanotic (accompanied by blueness) congenital heart disease.
VSD - Ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defect is the second of the most common congenital heart diseases in children over 3 years.
This defect is rare, but it can be very dangerous. It has a lot of clinical masks.